Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs  –  Chemical States Limited to 1+ and 0 (ZERO)

Chemical states for Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs are either 0 (zero) or 1+.

When these Alkali metals are bound to Fluorine we expect them to show a difference in BE when compared to Lithium bound to  Cl, Br or I.  But we do not see significant, reliable differences in BE values. We do see a significant difference in BE between elemental Lithium (Li) and its Lithium salts.

When we take into account the significant variations in the C (1s) BE used by different researchers, we find it difficult to see a true significant difference in these BEs.

If we take advantage of the strong chemical shifts that exist in Auger signals, and we correlate that with the XPS BE, then we can see the usefulness of the Auger Parameter.