From Survey Spectra
We can often determine large differences in chemical states directly from the BEs measured from Survey Spectra after charge referencing C (1s) to appear at ~285 eV.
- S (2p) example: Sulfides (S 2-) appear at ~162 eV. S-S appear at ~164 eV. Sulfates (SO4 2-) appear at ~168 eV.
- F (1s) example: F-carbons appear between 688-692 eV. F-metal appears at ~684-687 eV.
- C (1s) example: C-C appears at ~285 eV. CO3 (carbonate) appears at ~289 eV. Carbide (C2-) appears at ~283 eV
- Cl (2p) example: Cl-C appears at ~199 eV. Cl-metal appear at ~197 eV.
- N (1s) example: N as nitride appears 396-398 eV N as organic amine appears at 399-400 eV N as NH4 appears at 401.0-402.0 N as NOx appear between 403-408 eV
- Si (2p) example: Si element appears 99.2-99.8 eV (doping) Si as PDMS appears at 102.5 eV Si as SiO2 appears 103.4-103.8 eV