From Survey Spectra

We can often determine large differences in chemical states directly from the BEs measured from Survey Spectra after charge referencing C (1s) to appear at ~285 eV.



  • S (2p) example:    Sulfides (S 2-) appear at ~162 eV.                      S-S appear at ~164 eV.                                       Sulfates (SO4 2-) appear at ~168 eV.
  • F (1s) example:     F-carbons appear between 688-692 eV.           F-metal appears at ~684-687 eV.
  • C (1s) example:     C-C appears at ~285 eV.                                      CO3 (carbonate) appears at ~289 eV.             Carbide (C2-) appears at ~283 eV
  • Cl (2p) example:   Cl-C appears at ~199 eV.                                     Cl-metal appear at ~197 eV.
  • N (1s) example:    N as nitride appears 396-398 eV                        N as organic amine appears at 399-400 eV    N as NH4 appears at 401.0-402.0       N as NOx  appear between 403-408 eV
  • Si (2p) example:  Si element appears 99.2-99.8 eV (doping)      Si as PDMS appears at 102.5 eV                         Si as SiO2 appears 103.4-103.8 eV