Chemical State Spectra – OVERLAYS   (Ag – Zr)

This series of OVERLAYS of Chemical State Spectra shows the “chemical shifts” between different chemical states (species) for each element.  These shifts are due to differences in electron polarization in the bond between the two chemical states (groups, species).

True insulators were charge referenced (corrected) so that the hydrocarbon form of adventitious carbon appears at 285.0 eV.

Electron polarization is related to “electronegativity”.  When you compare the differences in electronegativity between two different atoms that are bonded then you will understand part of the reason for the “chemical shifts”.  Chemical shifts are valuable to scientists using XPS because allow us to understand differences in “chemical states”.

This collection of spectra includes:  overlays of two related chemicals, spectra of pure elements, spectra of metal oxides and more.  The various spectra will help you to understand more about Chemical States.

You will see differences in FWHMs and BEs for pure elements versus their oxides, fluoride …

 



Ag, Silver

Ag, Silver



Al, Aluminum

 

Al, Aluminum



Ar, Argon

 

Ar, Argon



As, Arsenic

 

As, Arsenic



Au, Gold

 

 

 

 

Au, Gold



B, Boron

 

B, Boron



Ba, Barium

 

Ba, Barium



 

Be, Beryllium

 

 

Be, Beryllium



Bi, Bismuth



Br, Bromine

Br, Bromine



C, Carbon

 

 

 

C, Carbon



Ca, Calcium

 

Ca, Calcium



Cd, Cadmium

 

 

\

Cd, Cadmium



Ce, Cerium

Ce, Cerium



Cl, Chlorine

Cl, Chlorine



Co, Cobalt

 

Co, Cobalt



Cr, Chromium

Cr, Chromium

 



Cs, Cesium

Cs, Cesium



Cu, Copper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cu, Copper



Dy, Dysprosium

Dy, Dysprosium



Er, Erbium

 

Er, Erbium



Eu, Europium

Eu, Europium



F, Fluorine

F, Fluorine



Fe, Iron

 

Fe, Iron



Ga, Gallium

Ga, Gallium



Ge, Germanium

Ge, Germanium



Gd, Gadolinium

Gd, Gadolinium



Hf, Hafnium

Hf, Hafnium



Hg, Mercury

Hg, Mercury



Ho, Holmium

Ho, Holmium



I, Iodine