Degradation Example

X-ray Induced Degradation – due to exposure time (flux)



X-ray Induced Degradation of NaClO4 – Cl (2p) Signal versus Time (12 hrs)

by Surface Science Instruments, Ruth Siordia

Some degradation may be due to the use of the electron flood gun.



Degradation due to Low Voltage Flood Gun Electrons




Degradation of MoO3 on Alumina due to Flood Gun – Catalyst

Mo (3d) Signal 




Due to Long Term (14 hr) Exposure to Monochromatic X-rays – High Flux




Degradation of Polymers due to Monochromatic and Non-Monochromatic X-rays





Polymeric Hydrocarbons lose Hydrogen to form C=C double bonds

These sp2 double bonds appear at slightly lower BE than sp3 single bonds.




Degradation due to Ar+ Ion Etching





Degradation of HfO2 and TiO2 by 1 kV Argon Ion Beam

Al2O3 does not readily degrade using a 1 kV Argon Ion Beam




Ta2O5 which is often used to Check Ion Etching Rate suffers Degradation at 200 eV and higher