Common Difficulties

Adsorbed gases (CO2, O2, H2O)
XPS after SEM
After baking
Anode induced ghost
Anode lifetime
Baking effects
Conductive tape
Conductive tape – not so conductive – insulating
Contamination spread
Data analysis
Data artefacts (ghost, spike, …)
Data processing
Depth profiling
Double side tape
Dropped sample
Electron gun lifetime
Hardware problems
Hardware troubleshooting
Instrument baking
Instrument calibration
Ion beam degradation
Ion beam induced mixing
Leak checking
Magnetic lens – effect on AR-XPS
Multi-technique surface analysis
Need beam alignment
Need column alignment
Need crystal alignment
Oxide buildup on lens – Au coat to solve
Peak overlaps – Al over Cu, Sb over O etc.
Peak overlaps – auger on XPS
Peak overlaps – non-mono satellites
Polymer to graphite after Ar+ etch
Potential breakage of mono crystals
Preferential sputtering
Scotch brand Invisible tape
SEM last – carbon buildup
Software troubleshooting
Surface migration
Tapes in vacuum
ToF-SIMS – after XPS
Virtual vacuum leaks