Charging Surface Charging by Wolfgang Pauli
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     *Wolfgang Pauli once stated that “the surface was invented by the devil.”  Maybe he anticipated the troubles caused by surface charging!

There are two major types of charging:  Surface Charging and Bulk Charging, XPS has to deal with surface charging effects.

This “Charge Compensation” schematic shows a few of the factors and variables that exist at the surface of a non-conductive sample when a low voltage (1-10 eV) beam of electrons is used to flood onto the surface to modify the charge that exists on the surface of the sample while it is simultaneously irradiated with a beam of monochromatic X-rays.

A list of the factors and variables that contribute to surface charging are shown below this schematic, along with brief descriptions of charge compensating systems.

For XPS, we mainly deal with Surface Charging effects.  Bulk Charging effects do not normally affect XPS measurements.



An artistic depiction of normal uncontrolled surface charging with a flood gun turned on.





Variables that affect Surface Charging, and Methods to Compensate Charging