Super Coster-Kronig Effect  or Multiple Shake-ups in

 Ti (2p1) in TiO2



Super Coster-Kronig Effect or Multiple Shake-ups for Ti (2p1) in TiO2


Here is an overlay of the Ti (2p) signals from pure Ti metal and a single crystal of TiO2.

After removing the chemical shift effect from TiO2, and making an overlay, we can see that the Ti (2p1) signal for TiO2 is ~0. 3-0.4 eV lower than the Ti (2p1) from Ti metal.


There are 2 explanations – (a) multiple shake-ups versus (b) super coster kroning