Physics of XPS

” X-rays IN  –  Electrons OUT “


XPS gives information (data) from the top 1-10 nm (0.01 um) of the surface of a solid sample.




XPS uses the Photoelectric Effect




The Photoelectric Effect produces Photoelectrons




The Photoelectrons produce XPS Spectra





A Schematic View of the Photoelectric Effect and

the Photoelectrons that Escape into the Vacuum of the XPS Instrument


How are Monochromatic X-rays Produced?